As we saw earlier, Bohr refined Rutherford's atomic model based on theoretical formulations. One of them is this:
The electrons are distributed according to their distances from the nucleus, describing circular orbits around the nucleus without gaining or losing energy.
Thus, there are several circular orbits in an atom, and each one has a certain energy value. Depending on the number of electrons it has, the atom may have various electronic levels or layers of energy.
These electronic levels, according to the number of known chemical elements, are numbered from 1 The 7 or represented by the letters K, L, M, N, O, P and Q, from the innermost level, which is closest to the core.
Bohr also stated that:
Upon receiving energy the electron can jump from its current layer to the outermost layer; When the energy source ceases, it returns to the source layer, releasing in the form of light the energy previously received.
By watching the photos below, you will see that the flame has different colors.
What can be seen by observing the different colors presented in the photos?
This is because the electrons of the different chemical elements reach also different outer layers by gaining energy. The emission of light depends on the energy difference between the electronic layer it was in and the layer to which it “jumped” upon receiving energy.
Energy in the form of light is emitted when the electron returns to its initial electron layer, and the color of light will depend on each chemical element.
Since visible light is formed by electromagnetic waves distributed over a certain frequency range, and at wave frequencies corresponds to the amount of energy it carries, we have that, the energy emitted by the electron is perceived by us in the form of light with the given color. by the amount of energy released.
This explains, for example, the colors of fireworks, as they are produced by adding light-emitting substances when heated.
As we have seen, according to Bohr's theory, upon receiving energy an electron can jump to an outer, higher-energy shell.
We now know that if the amount of energy supplied to an electron is too high, that electron could jump out of the area considered electrosphere. As a result, the atom no longer has an equal number of protons and electrons and is therefore no longer neutral.
Just as electrons can be lost, so can the atom receive electrons, causing the neutrality of electric charges to break.
In the two previous examples, it was possible to verify that with the loss or gain of electrons, atoms no longer have a neutral charge. When this occurs, the atom is renamed: they are called ions.